經濟學人 | 腦力游戲| 2016.07.09 | 總第617期

2019-10-08 12:23:16 英文早點

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Child?development

兒童發展

The?brain?game

腦力游戲

Jul?9th?2016?|?From?the?print?edition

?2016.7.9/選自印刷版

Helping?Children?Succeed:?What?Works?and?Why.?By?Paul?Tough.?Houghton?Mifflin?Harcourt;?144?pages;?$18.99.?Random?House;?£8.99.

幫助孩子成功:是什么從中起作用,并為何起作用。作者Paul?Tough.?哈考特出版社;144頁,18.99美元。蘭登書屋出版社:8.99英鎊。

AFTER?the?collapse?of?the?Soviet?Union,?the?number?of?infants?in?Russian?orphanages?swelled.?They?had?food,?and?they?were?clean?and?safe.?But?the?staff?were?impersonal?and?cold,?until?researchers?coached?them?in?new?ways:?smiling?at?the?babies,?cooing,?talking?and?other?behaviours?natural?to?parents.?The?results?were?striking.?Infants?did?better?on?developmental?tests?and?grew?physically?stronger,?too.

在蘇聯解體之后,俄羅斯孤兒院里的嬰幼兒數量多了起來。他們可以吃到食物,而且都處于干凈,安全的狀態。但是孤兒院的工作人員都很冷漠,后來調查人員以一種新的方式培訓他們:對孩子面帶微笑,話語溫柔,其他的行為舉止也都像父母一樣自然。結果相當驚人。孩子們在發育測試中表現得更好,身體也變得更強壯。Collapse: v./n.?崩潰,垮塌Swell:v. 膨脹,增強

For?Paul?Tough,?a?journalist,?this?offers?two?lessons?about?why?some?children?thrive?and?others?struggle.?The?first?is?that?the?emotional?contexts?in?which?children?grow?up?are?crucial,?especially?in?their?early?years—“a?remarkable?time?of?both?opportunity?and?potential?peril”.?Infants?who?are?neglected?or?under-stimulated?develop?in?different?ways?from?those?reared?in?loving?homes.?Hormones?triggered?by?stress?stunt?brain?development,?making?it?hard?to?control?behaviour?and?concentrate.?The?effects?last:?such?children?do?worse?in?exams?and?earn?less?at?work.

對于身為記者的Paul?Tough來說,這給他提供了兩點教訓,為什么一些孩子可以茁壯成長,而另一些孩子卻處境艱難。第一點是,孩子成長所處的情感環境很重要,尤其是在他們很小的時候——“機會和潛在危險共存的重要時間段”。被忽視或者缺少鼓勵的孩子,和成長在充滿愛意的家庭中的孩子會以不同的方式發展。壓力觸發的激素會阻礙大腦的發展,使大腦難以控制行為并且很難集中注意力。這種影響是持久性的,最終會導致孩子在考試中表現更差,在工作中賺得更少。

Thrive:v.?茁壯成長,興盛,興旺

Trigger:v.觸發,引發

The?second?lesson,?though,?is?that?it?is?possible?to?mitigate?the?effects?of?adversity.?In?“Helping?Children?Succeed”,?Mr?Tough?describes?Attachment?and?Biobehavioural?Catch-up?(ABC),?a?program?in?which?coaches?visit?foster?homes?in?poor?parts?of?New?York?City.?By?helping?foster?parents?become?more?attentive,?ABC?has?helped?children?in?care?to?reduce?stress?levels?and?improve?their?behaviour.

而第二點是,逆境的影響有可能緩解。在《幫助孩子成功》一書中,Tough先生提出了“Attachment?and?Biobehavioural?Catch-up?(簡稱ABC)”節目,在該節目中,教練拜訪了位于紐約市貧困地區的收養家庭。通過幫助養父母變得更加細心,ABC幫助被領養的孩子減輕壓力,改善他們的行為。

Mitigate:v. 緩和,減緩

It?is?most?cost-effective?to?act?early?to?prevent?infants?turning?into?troublesome?teenagers,?but?Mr?Tough?shows?that?policy?can?also?help?later?on?in?childhood.?He?cites?Turnaround?for?Children,?a?program?run?in?schools?in?New?York,?New?Jersey?and?Washington,?DC,?by?Pamela?Cantor,?a?child?psychiatrist.?Turnaround?trains?teachers?to?make?their?classrooms?more?supportive?and?their?classwork?more?engaging.?Teachers?are?told?how?to?defuse?aggressive?pupils,?and?are?encouraged?to?set?tricky?team?projects?rather?than?drone?on?at?the?whiteboard.

期待您的翻譯,您可以將翻譯留言到文章底部,第二天會有答案解析哦。他提到了在紐約、新澤西、華盛頓和哥倫比亞的學校里進行的“變型少年”節目,該節目由兒童心理學醫生Pamela?Cantor組織,旨在培訓老師使他們的課堂更加積極,課堂活動更加有吸引力。節目中教練指導老師們如何處理好斗的學生,還鼓勵老師組織有趣的團隊活動而不是只在黑板上枯燥地寫字。

Defuse:v.平息,使緩和

Mr?Tough’s?book?is?one?of?many?in?recent?years?to?argue?that?education?policy?in?rich?countries?has?emphasised?academic?skills?while?neglecting?emotional?and?psychological?development.?His?previous?books,?“Whatever?It?Takes”,?about?the?Harlem?Children’s?Zone?(a?pioneering?educational?charity?in?New?York),?and?“How?Children?Succeed”,?pursue?similar?themes.?Those?books?are?better.?“Helping?Children?Succeed”?reads?more?like?a?succession?of?entries?in?a?notebook?than?a?new?story?worthy?of?a?whole?book.

Tough先生的書認為發達國家的教育政策過分強調了學術技能,而忽視了身心發展,近年來類似觀點的書有很多,這只是其中之一。他之前的書,如講述哈林兒童公園(紐約教育慈善機構的先驅)的《無論代價如何》,以及《孩子如何成功》,也都闡述了相似的觀點。這些書更好一些。《幫助孩子成功》讀起來更像是列在筆記本上的一系列條目,而不是值得寫成書的新故事。

Pioneering:n.先驅

Nevertheless,?his?message?bears?repeating.?Too?often,?education?policy?zips?from?one?fad?to?another,?neglecting?the?deeper?reasons?why?adversity?leads?to?poor?outcomes.?Evidence-based?early?childhood?projects?are?among?the?smartest?ways?to?avert?enduring?poverty.?Spending?public?money?on?infants?can?save?taxpayers?a?lot?of?money?later?(on,?say,?job?training?and?prison?places).?But?such?programs?must?be?rooted?in?scientific?evidence?and?led?by?empathetic?professionals?who?know?what?they?are?doing.

不過,他的作品經得起推敲。在絕大多數情況下,教育政策從一種觀念迅速轉換為另一種觀念,而忽視了逆境導致貧窮境遇的深層原因。早期的童年循證項目都是通過最簡潔的方法擺脫長期貧困。把國家資金用在孩子身上可以在未來使納稅者們省下一大筆錢(比如說,用在崗位培訓和監獄)。但是這樣的活動必須源于科學的依據,而且由富有同情心的深知他們在做什么的專家領導。

Too?often:在絕大多數情況下

Evidence-based:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evidence-based_practiceToo?often?they?do?not.?Around?the?world,?countries?are?embracing?early-childhood?projects,?opening?snazzy?centres?and?dispatching?home?visitors.?But?too?many?projects?are?of?poor?quality.?Mr?Tough?shows?that?it?need?not?be?this?way.?In?doing?so?he?points?towards?an?entirely?new?meaning?for?the?nanny?state.?

但是,在絕大多數情況下他們并沒有這樣。在全世界,各國都在進行早期童年項目,開設先進的體驗中心,派遣家訪人員。但是很多的項目質量都很差。Tough先生認為這樣根本沒有必要。他這樣做指出了兒童保姆的全新含義。???

七星彩中奖结果